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Review
. 2007 Jun;92(6):2017-29.
doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-0298. Epub 2007 Mar 27.

The Role of Vitamin D and Calcium in Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Free PMC article
Review

The Role of Vitamin D and Calcium in Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Anastassios G Pittas et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Context: Altered vitamin D and calcium homeostasis may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION AND ANALYSES: MEDLINE review was conducted through January 2007 for observational studies and clinical trials in adults with outcomes related to glucose homeostasis. When data were available to combine, meta-analyses were performed, and summary odds ratios (OR) are presented.

Evidence synthesis: Observational studies show a relatively consistent association between low vitamin D status, calcium or dairy intake, and prevalent type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM prevalence, 0.36 (0.16-0.80) among nonblacks for highest vs. lowest 25-hydroxyvitamin D; metabolic syndrome prevalence, 0.71 (0.57-0.89) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. There are also inverse associations with incident type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM incidence, 0.82 (0.72-0.93) for highest vs. lowest combined vitamin D and calcium intake; 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. Evidence from trials with vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation suggests that combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation may have a role in the prevention of type 2 DM only in populations at high risk (i.e. glucose intolerance). The available evidence is limited because most observational studies are cross-sectional and did not adjust for important confounders, whereas intervention studies were short in duration, included few subjects, used a variety of formulations of vitamin D and calcium, or did post hoc analyses.

Conclusions: Vitamin D and calcium insufficiency may negatively influence glycemia, whereas combined supplementation with both nutrients may be beneficial in optimizing glucose metabolism.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.

Figures

Figure
Figure
Adjusted Relative risk of incident type 2 diabetes in the Nurses Health Study by calcium and vitamin D intake (52)

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