Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequently occurring genetic variation in the human genome, with the total number of SNPs reported in public SNP databases currently exceeding 9 million. SNPs are important markers in many studies that link sequence variations to phenotypic changes; such studies are expected to advance the understanding of human physiology and elucidate the molecular bases of diseases. For this reason, over the past several years a great deal of effort has been devoted to developing accurate, rapid, and cost-effective technologies for SNP analysis, yielding a large number of distinct approaches. This article presents a review of SNP genotyping techniques and examines their principles of genotype determination in terms of allele differentiation strategies and detection methods. Further, several current biomedical applications of SNP genotyping are discussed.