Cardiovascular metabolic syndrome - an interplay of, obesity, inflammation, diabetes and coronary heart disease

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):218-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2006.00594.x.


Cardiovascular disease is currently one of the biggest causes of morbidity and mortality facing humanity. Such a paradigm shift of disease pattern over the last century has only worsened due to the alarming global prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In recent years there is increasing focus on inflammation as one of the key players in the patho-physiology of these disorders. In addition to these overt risk factors new research is unraveling the significance of a constellation of early metabolic abnormalities that include weight gain, insulin resistance, prehypertension and a specific pattern of dyslipidaemia. There exists a complex interrelationship of these various metabolic disorders and their effect on cardiovascular system. Simplified explanation can be that inflammation increases insulin resistance, which in turn leads to obesity while perpetuating diabetes, high blood pressure, prothrombotic state and dyslipidaemia. While inflammation and insulin resistance have direct adverse effects on cardiac muscle, these metabolic abnormalities as a whole cause causes cardiovascular complications; warranting a multi pronged therapeutic and preventive approach for the 'Cardiovascular Metabolic Syndrome' as an entity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Coronary Disease / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Dyslipidemias / physiopathology
  • Dyslipidemias / therapy
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology
  • Glycocalyx / physiology
  • Humans
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Inflammation / physiopathology*
  • Lipoproteins / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Niacin / therapeutic use
  • Obesity / physiopathology*
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / agonists
  • Syndrome


  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Lipoproteins
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
  • Niacin