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Review
. 2007 Apr;28(1):50-60.
doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2007.02.002. Epub 2007 Feb 22.

Visceral Sensory Inputs to the Endocrine Hypothalamus

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Free PMC article
Review

Visceral Sensory Inputs to the Endocrine Hypothalamus

Linda Rinaman. Front Neuroendocrinol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Interoceptive feedback signals from the body are transmitted to hypothalamic neurons that control pituitary hormone release. This review article describes the organization of central neural pathways that convey ascending visceral sensory signals to endocrine neurons in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus in rats. A special emphasis is placed on viscerosensory inputs to corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-containing PVN neurons that drive the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and on inputs to magnocellular PVN and SON neurons that release vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin (OT) from the posterior pituitary. The postnatal development of these ascending pathways also is considered.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Schematic of ascending pathways (arrows) through which visceral sensory signals from the spinal cord and caudal brainstem reach the hypothalamus and limbic forebrain. Multiple interconnections among these brain regions are not shown, including reciprocal connections between the CeA and BNST, and descending projections from the hypothalamus and limbic forebrain to the PBN, NST and VLM. See abbreviation list.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Immunoperoxidase labeling of DbH-positive NA fibers within the PVN in an intact adult rat (A) and in a rat following toxin-induced destruction of NA neurons within the NST (B). Systemic administration of LiCl (0.15M, 2% BW, i.p.) induces robust neural Fos expression within the medial parvocellular and lateral magnocelluar PVN of the intact rat (C), but attenuated Fos expression within the medial parvocellular PVN of the toxin-lesioned rat (D). Remaining NA fibers presumably arise from the VLM and from residual non-lesioned NST neurons, although the LC may contribute NA inputs to the periventricular region. See abbreviation list.
Figure 3
Figure 3
The top panel and inset depict immunoperoxidase labeling of GLP-1 immunopositive fibers (brown) within the PVN and SON (inset) in an adult rat after systemic administration of LiCl (0.15M, 2% BW, i.p.). Robust LiCl-induced neural Fos expression (blue-black nuclear label) is present throughout the PVN, including the PVNmp and PVNlm. GLP-1-positive fibers are largely absent within the core of the PVNlm, where AVP-positive neurons cluster in rats. Instead, GLP-1-positive fibers are distributed around the perimeter of the PVNlm, where magnocellular OT neurons predominate, and throughout the PVNmp, where parvocellular CRF and OT neurons predominate. LiCl-induced Fos expression also is prevalent throughout the SON (inset), where GLP-1-positive fibers cluster within the dorsal and medial SON where magnocellular OT neurons predominate. The lower panel depicts immunoperoxidase labeling of CRF-positive neurons (brown) within the PVN in an adult rat perfused 90 min after intracerebroventricular infusion of 1.0 μg of synthetic GLP-1-(7–36) amide. Fos expression is robust within the PVNmp, including activation of the majority of CRF-positive neurons. Conversely, Fos is largely absent within the core of the PVNlm, where magnocellular AVP neurons predominate. 3v, third ventricle. See abbreviation list.

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