Prospective study of smoking and tuberculosis in India

Prev Med. 2007 Jun;44(6):496-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.02.017. Epub 2007 Feb 23.


Objective: Although tuberculosis has already become uncommon in industrialised countries, is a major burden in many developing countries, including India. This paper examines the association between smoking (mainly bidi smoking) and tuberculosis in Mumbai, India.

Method: To study the possible association between smoking and tuberculosis, recruitment of a cohort of 81,443 men > or =35 years began in 1991 and was followed up to the end of 2003 in Mumbai.

Results: The adjusted risk of tuberculosis deaths among bidi smokers was 2.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.02, 3.33) times higher than never-smokers, with a significant trend for daily frequency of bidi smoking. Also the risk of prevalence of self reported tuberculosis among bidi smokers was 5.23 (95% CI: 4.01, 6.82) times higher than never-smokers.

Conclusion: In India around 32% of tuberculosis deaths can be attributable to bidi smoking. Thus, bidi smoking seems to be an important cause of manifestation and death from tuberculosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cause of Death
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Death Certificates
  • Developing Countries
  • Diospyros
  • Educational Status
  • Habits
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Odds Ratio
  • Population Surveillance
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking* / adverse effects
  • Smoking* / epidemiology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tuberculosis* / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis* / etiology
  • Urban Health / statistics & numerical data