[Relationship between phthalates and testicular dysgenesis syndrome]

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2007 Mar;13(3):195-200.
[Article in Chinese]


Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrates that boys born to women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer and spermatogenic dysfunction, which are collectively referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS may be attributed to the dysfunction of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during their differentiation after exposure to phthalates in utero. Fox example, Leydig cell functions are significantly affected by phthalates, leading to the decrease of two Leydig cell products--insulin-like growth factor 3 (INSL3) and testosterone, which are critical factors for testis descent. The disorientation of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells in the adult testis may be the cause of spermatogenic dysfunction.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cryptorchidism / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Fetus / drug effects*
  • Gonadal Dysgenesis / chemically induced*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infertility, Male / epidemiology
  • Leydig Cells / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Maternal Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Phthalic Acids / toxicity*
  • Pregnancy
  • Syndrome
  • Testicular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Testis / cytology


  • Phthalic Acids
  • phthalic acid