Objectives: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a protocol for rapid intravenous hydration to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy frequently complicates PCI, resulting in prolonged hospitalization and increased in-hospital and long-term morbidity and mortality. Little is known regarding prevention of CIN in patients undergoing urgent PCI.
Methods: We conducted a prospective, controlled, randomized, single-center trial in 111 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing emergency PCI. As part of the hydration therapy, 56 patients (group A) received an infusion of sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylcysteine (N-AC) started just before contrast injection and continued for 12 h after PCI. The remaining 55 patients (group B) received the standard hydration protocol consisting of intravenous isotonic saline for 12 h after PCI. In both groups, 2 doses of oral N-AC were administered the next day.
Results: The 2 groups were similar with respect to age, gender, diabetes mellitus, and baseline serum creatinine. A serum creatinine concentration >0.5 mg/dl from baseline after emergency PCI was observed in 1 patient in group A (1.8%) and in 12 patients in group B (21.8%; p < 0.001). Acute anuric renal failure was observed in 1 patient (1.8%) in group A and in 7 patients (12.7%) in group B (p = 0.032).
Conclusions: Rapid intravenous hydration with sodium bicarbonate plus N-AC before contrast injection is effective and safe in the prevention of CIN in patients undergoing emergency PCI.