Expanding understanding of epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis in the Western hemisphere

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Sep;1111:19-34. doi: 10.1196/annals.1406.004. Epub 2007 Mar 29.


Coccidioidomycosis is a disease of both national and worldwide importance that is most often diagnosed in nonendemic regions. The endemic region for Coccidioides spp. lies exclusively in the Western Hemisphere. Coccidioides spp. has long been identified in semiarid areas of the United States and Mexico, and endemic foci have been described in areas of Central and South America. Infection is usually the result of activities that cause the fungus to become airborne and inhaled by a susceptible host. Underlying medical diseases that affect T cell function are known to increase the risk of disseminated disease and include human immunodeficiency virus, cancer, and disease processes requiring transplantation and its subsequent immunosuppressive agents. In recent years the incidence of the coccidioidomycosis has increased in California and Arizona, which may be partially due to the massive migration of Americans to the Sunbelt states. To date the highest number of cases reported in Arizona was in 2004, when a total of 3,665 cases of coccidioidomycosis was reported, representing a 281% increase since 1997. Statistics on the prevalence and incidence of coccidioidomycosis in Latin America either are fragmentary or simply are not available.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Central America
  • Coccidioides / metabolism
  • Coccidioidomycosis / diagnosis*
  • Coccidioidomycosis / epidemiology*
  • Comorbidity
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Female
  • Geography
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Mexico
  • South America
  • T-Lymphocytes / microbiology
  • United States


  • Immunosuppressive Agents