In the postabsorptive state, certain tissues, including the brain, require glucose as the sole source of energy. After an overnight fast, hepatic glycogen stores are depleted, and gluconeogenesis becomes essential for preventing life-threatening hypoglycemia. Mice with a targeted deletion of KLF15, a member of the Krüppel-like family of transcription factors, display severe hypoglycemia after an overnight (18 hr) fast. We provide evidence that defective amino acid catabolism promotes the development of fasting hypoglycemia in KLF15-/- mice by limiting gluconeogenic substrate availability. KLF15-/- liver and skeletal muscle show markedly reduced mRNA expression of amino acid-degrading enzymes. Furthermore, the enzymatic activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), which converts the critical gluconeogenic amino acid alanine into pyruvate, is decreased (approximately 50%) in KLF15-/- hepatocytes. Consistent with this observation, intraperitoneal injection of pyruvate, but not alanine, rescues fasting hypoglycemia in KLF15-/- mice. We conclude that KLF15 plays an important role in the regulation of gluconeogenesis.