Initial hormonal management of androgen-sensitive metastatic, recurrent, or progressive prostate cancer: 2006 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline

J Clin Oncol. 2007 Apr 20;25(12):1596-605. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2006.10.1949. Epub 2007 Apr 2.


Purpose: To update the 2004 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guideline on initial hormonal management of androgen-sensitive, metastatic, recurrent, or progressive prostate cancer (PCa).

Methods: The writing committee based its recommendations on an updated systematic literature review. Recommendations were approved by the Expert Panel, the ASCO Health Services Committee, and the ASCO Board of Directors.

Results: Seven randomized controlled trials (four new), one systematic review, one meta-analysis (new), one Markov model, and one delta-method 95% CI procedure for active controlled trials (new) informed the guideline update.

Recommendations: Bilateral orchiectomy or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists are recommended initial androgen-deprivation treatments (ADTs). Nonsteroidal antiandrogen monotherapy merits discussion as an alternative; steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy should not be offered. Combined androgen blockade should be considered. In metastatic or progressive PCa, immediate versus symptom-onset institution of ADT results in a moderate decrease (17%) in relative risk (RR) for PCa-specific mortality, a moderate increase (15%) in RR for non-PCa-specific mortality, and no overall survival advantage. Therefore, the Panel cannot make a strong recommendation for early ADT initiation. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and other metrics allow identification of populations at high risk for PCa-specific and overall mortality. Further studies must be completed to assess whether patients with adverse prognostic factors gain a survival advantage from immediate ADT. For patients electing to wait until symptoms for ADT, regular monitoring visits are indicated. For patients with recurrence, clinical trials should be considered if available. Currently, data are insufficient to support use of intermittent androgen blockade outside clinical trials

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Practice Guideline
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Disease Progression
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Orchiectomy / methods
  • Prognosis
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • Risk Assessment
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen