Arabidopsis mitochondria are predicted to contain three acyl carrier proteins (ACPs). These small proteins are involved in fatty acid and lipoic acid synthesis in other organisms and have been previously reported to be subunits of respiratory Complex I in mitochondria in mammals, fungi and plants. Recently, the mammalian mitochondrial ACP (mtACP) has been shown to be largely a soluble matrix protein but also to be minimally associated with Complex I (Cronan et al. 2005), consistent with its involvement in synthesis of lipoic acid for TCA cycle decarboxylating dehydrogenases in the matrix but contrary to earlier claims it was primarily a Complex I subunit. We have investigated the localization of the ACPs in Arabidopsis mitochondria. Evidence is presented that mtACP1 and mtACP2 dominate the ACP composition in Arabidopsis mitochondria, and both are present in the mitochondrial matrix rather than in the membrane. No significant amounts of mtACPs were detected in Complex I isolated by blue native gel electrophoresis, rather mtACPs were detected at low molecular mass in the soluble fraction, showing that in A. thaliana mtACPs are predominately free soluble matrix proteins.