Nosema bombycis is the causative agent of the silkworm Bombyx mori pebrine disease which inflicts severe worldwide economical losses in sericulture. Little is known about host-parasite interactions at the molecular level for this spore-forming obligate intracellular parasite which belongs to the fungi-related Microsporidia phylum. Major microsporidian structural proteins from the spore wall (SW) and the polar tube (PT) are known to be involved in host invasion. We developed a proteomic-based approach to identify few N. bombycis proteins belonging to these cell structures. Protein extraction protocols were optimized and four N. bombycis spore protein extracts were compared by SDS-PAGE and 2-DE to establish complementary proteomic profiles. Three proteins were shown to be located at the parasite SW. Moreover, 17 polyclonal antibodies were raised against major N. bombycis proteins from all extracts, and three spots were shown to correspond to polar tube proteins (PTPs) by immunofluorescent assay and transmission electron microscopy immunocytochemistry on cryosections. Specific patterns for each PTP were obtained by MALDI-TOF-MS and MS/MS. Peptide sequence tags were deduced by de novo sequencing using Peaks Online and DeNovoX, then evaluated by MASCOT and SEQUEST searches. Identification parameters were higher than false-positive hits, strengthening our strategy that could be enlarged to a nongenomic context.