Aronia melanocarpa, native to eastern North America, has become popular in Eastern Europe and Russia. Aronia melanocarpa fruits are one of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, mainly anthocyanins--glycosides of cyanidin. Anthocyanins are water soluble pigments accounting for the dark blue and even black color of the fruits. Administered orally they can be absorbed as intact glycosides. Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice and anthocyanins derived from the fruits have been studied intensively for the last 15 years. Most of the effects of Aronia melanocarpa anthocyanins are due to their high antioxidative activity. Our investigations have demonstrated a remarkable hepatoprotective, a very good gastroprotective and a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in rats as well as a bacteriostatic activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and an antiviral activity against type A influenza virus. Research of other authors has demonstrated that Aronia melanocarpa anthocyanins can normalize the carbohydrate metabolism in diabetic patients and in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, have an in vitro antimutagenic activity and exhibit a distinct immunomodulatory activity in human lymphocyte cultures and in patients with breast cancer, suppress the growth of human HT-29 colon cancer cells, inhibit the N-nitrosamine formation in rats and decrease the toxicity and cumulation of cadmium in liver and kidneys. Currently, there are no data in literature about any unwanted and toxic effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruits, juice and extracts.