The relative effect of household and workplace smoking restriction on health status among Chinese Americans living in New York City

J Urban Health. 2007 May;84(3):360-71. doi: 10.1007/s11524-007-9190-6.


Households and workplaces are the predominant location for exposure to secondhand smoke. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between health status and smoking restrictions at home and work and to compare the relative effect of household and workplace smoking restrictions on health status. This study uses data from a cross sectional representative probability sample of 2,537 Chinese American adults aged 18-74 living in New York City. The analysis was limited to 1,472 respondents who work indoors for wages. Forty-three percent of respondents reported a total smoking ban at home and the workplace, 20% at work only, 22% home only, and 15% reported no smoking restriction at home or work. Nonsmokers [corrected] who live under a total household smoking ban only or both a total household and total workplace ban were respectively 1.90 and 2.61 times more likely to report better health status compared with those who reported no smoking ban at work or home. Before the NYC Clean Indoor Air Act second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure among this immigrant Chinese population at home and work was high. This study finds that household smoking restrictions are more strongly associated with better health status than workplace smoking restrictions. However, better health status was most strongly associated with both a ban at work and home. Public health efforts should include a focus on promoting total household smoking bans to reduce the well-documented health risks of SHS exposure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / adverse effects
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / statistics & numerical data*
  • Asian Americans / statistics & numerical data*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Family Characteristics / ethnology*
  • Female
  • Health Status Indicators*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • New York City / epidemiology
  • Occupational Exposure / statistics & numerical data*
  • Organizational Policy
  • Regression Analysis
  • Residence Characteristics / classification*
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / ethnology*
  • Smoking Prevention
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / statistics & numerical data*
  • Workplace / classification*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution