Erythema infectiosum is the main manifestation of human parvovirus B19 infections. Further B19-related diseases commonly associated with the acute infection are flue-like symptoms, transient aplastic crisis, transient arthralgias, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, spontaneous abortion and hydrops fetalis in pregnant women. Hepatitis, myocarditis, meningitis, encephalitis as well as pure red cell anemia may occur occasionally. In addition parvovirus B19 infections have been frequently described as cause or trigger of various forms of autoimmune diseases affecting all blood cell lines, joints, connective tissue, uvea, large and small vessels. Molecular mimicry may be one major contribution to the appearance of autoimmune antibodies, f.e. antiphospholipid and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies as well as antinuclear antigens. These mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 triggered autoimmune diseases, especially focused on the development of antiphospholipid antibodies will be discussed in this short review.