Modified Lundie loops improve apraxia of eyelid opening

J Neuroophthalmol. 2007 Mar;27(1):32-5. doi: 10.1097/WNO.0b013e3180334f0b.


Background: Current treatments are unsatisfactory for improving apraxia of eyelid opening, defined as a delay or inability to open closed eyelids voluntarily in the presence of intact motor pathways.

Methods: Improvement in functional health was assessed using the Blepharospasm Disability Scale (BDS) in five consecutive patients with apraxia of eyelid opening treated with wire loops affixed behind ordinary spectacles (Lundie loops) and modified to provide pressure on the brow as a stimulus to keep the eyelids elevated.

Results: All five patients showed improvement in BDS scores. The mean percentage of normal activity of the study population improved from 25% to 37.6%. Outdoor activities were not significantly altered with the use of the device.

Conclusions: Modified Lundie loops appear to be helpful in improving the functional health of patients with eyelid apraxia. These results will need to be verified in larger trials.

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Apraxias / etiology*
  • Apraxias / therapy
  • Blepharospasm / complications
  • Blepharospasm / physiopathology
  • Blepharospasm / therapy*
  • Equipment Design
  • Eyeglasses*
  • Eyelids / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Treatment Outcome