Development of independent walking in toddlers

Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2007 Apr;35(2):67-73. doi: 10.1249/JES.0b013e31803eafa8.


Surprisingly, despite millions of years of bipedal walking evolution, the gravity-related pendulum mechanism of walking does not seem to be implemented at the onset of independent walking, requiring each toddler to develop it. We discuss the precursor of the mature locomotor pattern in infants as an optimal starting point strategy for gait maturation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological / physiology
  • Child Development / physiology*
  • Foot / physiology
  • Gait / physiology*
  • Gravitation
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Leg / physiology
  • Postural Balance / physiology*
  • Thigh / physiology
  • Walking / physiology*