As of 2005, it was estimated that 7% of the US population, approximately 21 million people, have diabetes. The major concern with diabetes is long-term complications, which are responsible for increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that lower glycosylated hemoglobin reduces the microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with diabetes. To achieve this goal, the American Diabetes Association provides treatment goals to aggressively control diabetes to improve outcomes and decrease morbidity and mortality. Although studies have proved the beneficial effects of currently used agents, there are still various concerns, including weight gain, high risk of hypoglycemia, poor postprandial control, and failure to maintain long-term glycemic control. With the advent of new incretin-related therapies, some of these concerns may be addressed. Diabetes is of growing concern, and better knowledge of treatment options and goals should be a priority for all healthcare professionals.