Molecular characterization of GDD1/TMEM16E, the gene product responsible for autosomal dominant gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 May 25;357(1):126-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.108. Epub 2007 Mar 28.


The human GDD1/TMEM16E gene has been found to be mutated in gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia, an unusual skeletal syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance. The molecular and biochemical function(s) of GDD1 protein has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we examined the murine GDD1 gene expression pattern during embryonic development, and characterized the cellular and tissue localizations of its gene product using a GDD1-specific antibody. In the developing embryos, GDD1 mRNA expression was principally associated with differentiating and developing somites, with a highly complex spatiotemporal pattern that involved the myotomal and sclerotomal lineages of somites. Biochemical studies indicated that GDD1 protein is an integral membrane glycoprotein that resides predominantly in intracellular vesicles. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a high level of murine GDD1 protein expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues, and in growth-plate chondrocytes and osteoblasts in bone. These observations suggest diverse cellular role(s) of GDD1 in the development of musculoskeletal system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Diseases / metabolism*
  • Chromosome Disorders / metabolism
  • Embryonic Development*
  • Genes, Dominant
  • Membrane Proteins / chemistry*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Myocardium / metabolism*
  • Organ Specificity
  • Tissue Distribution


  • GDD1 protein, mouse
  • Membrane Proteins