Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a human pathogen that is widely distributed in the marine environments. This organism is frequently isolated from a variety of raw seafoods, particularly shellfish. Consumption of raw or undercooked seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus may lead to development of acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, headache, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal cramps. This pathogen is a common cause of foodborne illnesses in many Asian countries, including China, Japan and Taiwan, and is recognized as the leading cause of human gastroenteritis associated with seafood consumption in the United States. This review gives an overview of V. parahaemolyticus food poisoning and provides information on recent development in methods for detecting V. parahaemolyticus and strategies for reducing risk of V. parahaemolyticus infections associated with seafood consumption.