This retrospective study was designed to investigate the prognostic significance of EpCAM expression in human oral squamous cell carcinoma on a long-term follow-up. EpCAM expression was examined immunohistochemically on a tissue microarray (TMA) of paraffin embedded tissue specimens from 77 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in the period between 1980 and 1997 at the Department of Craniomaxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University. High EpCAM expression was found in 17 (22.1%) of the tumor samples. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis no correlation of EpCAM overexpression was observed with conventional clinicopathologic features in this patient cohort. Taken together, these data suggest that EpCAM might become an attractive treatment target in a subgroup of patients with OSCC.