Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are cationic peptides, subdivided into two families, which present molecular masses of around 7 and 10 kDa. The peptides were, thus, denominated due to their ability to reversibly bind and transport hydrophobic molecules in vitro. Both subfamilies possess conserved patterns of eight cysteine residues and the three-dimensional structure reveals an internal hydrophobic cavity that comprises the lipid binding site. Based on the growing knowledge regarding structure, gene expression and regulation and in vitro activity, LTPs are likely to play a role in key processes of plant physiology. Although the roles of plant LTPs have not yet been fully determined. This review aims to present comprehensive information of recent topics, cover new additional data, and present new perspectives on these families of peptides.