Influence of maceration temperature in red wine vinification on extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of grape (Vitis vinifera)

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Apr;71(4):958-65. doi: 10.1271/bbb.60628. Epub 2007 Apr 7.


The extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of the grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, during red wine maceration and the influence of different temperature conditions (cold soak and/or heating at the end of maceration) were examined. Phenolics contained mainly in berry skins, viz., anthocyanin, flavonol, and epigallocatechin units within proanthocyanidins, were extracted during the early stage of maceration, whereas those in seeds, viz., gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers, and epicatechin-gallate units within proanthocyanidins, were gradually extracted. In addition to their localization, the molecular size and composition of the proanthocyanidins possibly influenced the kinetics of their extraction. Cold soak reduced the extraction of phenolics from the seeds. Heating at the end of maceration decreased the concentration of proanthocyanidins. Thus, modification of the temperature condition during maceration affected the progress of the concentration of phenolics, resulting in an alteration of their make-up in the finished wine.

MeSH terms

  • Catechin / chemistry
  • Catechin / isolation & purification
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Fermentation
  • Kinetics
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Phenols / isolation & purification
  • Phloroglucinol / chemistry
  • Proanthocyanidins / chemistry
  • Proanthocyanidins / isolation & purification
  • Seeds / chemistry*
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet
  • Temperature
  • Vitis / chemistry*
  • Wine / analysis*


  • Phenols
  • Proanthocyanidins
  • Catechin
  • Phloroglucinol