Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 (AKR1B10), an enzyme that converts retinals into retinols is known to detect in non-small cell lung carcinoma (squamous cell- and adeno-carcinomas), but is barely expressed in normal tissues. Since these types of carcinoma occur frequently in the uterus (like in the lung), AKR1B10 may also be overexpressed in two major types of uterine cancer, cervical cancer (CC), and endometrial cancer (EMC). The objective of this study is to investigate AKR1B10 expression in uterine cancer and to analyze its clinical significance. In samples from uterine cancer patients, AKR1B10 was detected in 6 out of 30 (20.0%) CC cases and 6 out of 38 (15.8%) EMC cases. Statistical analysis indicated that AKR1B10 expression was associated with tumor recurrence after surgery and keratinization of squamous cell carcinoma only in CC. Although retinol (a metabolic product by AKR1B10) was observed in the normal epithelium, the molecule was not observed in cancer cells of AKR1B10-positive CC samples suggesting that the recurrence in CC may not depend on the convert of retinals into retinols via AKR1B10, a potential indicator in the management of patients with CC.