Safety issues and prospects for future generations of PPAR modulators

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Aug;1771(8):1065-81. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2007.02.003. Epub 2007 Feb 24.


Because of their wide range of actions on glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and vascular inflammation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are promising targets for the development of new drugs for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. In clinical practice, PPARalpha agonists, such as the already available fibrates, improve dyslipidemia, while PPARgamma agonists, such as thiazolidinediones, improve insulin resistance and diabetes. The complementary action of simultaneous activation of each PPAR in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes has led to new pharmacological strategies focused on the development of agonists targeting more than one receptor such as the dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists. However, despite the proven benefits of targeting PPARs, safety concerns have recently led to late stage development failures of various PPAR agonists including novel specific PPARgamma agonists and dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists. These safety concerns include potential carcinogenicity in rodents, signs of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis, increase in plasma creatinine and homocysteine, weight gain, fluid retention, peripheral edema and potential increased risk of cardiac failure. Although the discontinued compounds shared common side effects, the reason for discontinuation was always compound specific and the toxicological or adverse effects which have motivated the discontinuation could be either due to the activation of PPARgamma, PPARalpha or both (class effect) or due to a PPAR unrelated effect. Thus, the risk evaluation of each adverse effect should be viewed on a case by case basis considering both the PPAR profile of the drug, its absorption/distribution profile, the nature of the side effect and the putative PPAR-related mechanism of action. This review mainly focuses on the preclinical and clinical adverse events of PPAR agonists that could be of concern when considering the development of new PPAR agonists. The selective modulation of PPAR activities is a promising approach to develop new drugs with preserved efficacy but diminished adverse effects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / physiopathology
  • Heart / drug effects
  • Heart / physiology
  • Heart / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / agonists
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / drug effects
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / physiology*
  • Safety


  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors