Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2007 May;24(5):1250-65. doi: 10.1364/josaa.24.001250.


After discussing the rationale and assumptions of the ANSI Z136.1-2000 Standard for protection of the human eye from laser exposure, we present the concise formulation of the exposure limits expressed as maximum permissible radiant exposure (in J/cm(2)) for light overfilling the pupil. We then translate the Standard to a form that is more practical for typical ophthalmic devices or in vision research situations, implementing the special qualifications of the Standard. The safety limits are then expressed as radiant power (watts) entering the pupil of the eye. Exposure by repetitive pulses is also addressed, as this is frequently employed in ophthalmic applications. Examples are given that will familiarize potential users with this format.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Equipment Failure Analysis / standards
  • Equipment Safety / standards*
  • Eye Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Guidelines as Topic*
  • Humans
  • Ophthalmology / instrumentation*
  • Radiation Dosage
  • Radiation Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Radiation Protection / standards*
  • Radiometry / methods*
  • Radiometry / standards
  • United States