We describe four patients with Barth syndrome who have undergone successful orthotopic heart transplantation. Patients are one, seven, 12.5 and 14.7 yr post-transplantation. One episode of severe infection occurred. Renal dysfunction and coronary allograft vasculopathy do not appear accelerated over non-Barth patients. Despite withholding purine synthesis inhibitors, these patients have not demonstrated an increased rate of rejection.