Meibomian gland disease. Classification and grading of lid changes

Eye (Lond). 1991;5 ( Pt 4):395-411. doi: 10.1038/eye.1991.65.


In recent years attention has been paid to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) as a distinct clinical entity responsible for chronic symptoms and signs and occurring independently or in association with atopy, cicatrising mucosal disorders and rosacea. Attempts to correlate MGD with microbiological and lipid biochemical changes are confounded by the absence of a clear descriptive language for the disorder and its associated changes. Such a language is crucial for the conduct of cross-sectional and natural history studies and therapeutic clinical trials. We present a comprehensive classification and grading scheme of meibomian gland disease, supporting our observations with illustrations.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Eyelid Diseases* / classification
  • Eyelid Diseases* / pathology
  • Eyelids / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Meibomian Glands / pathology