In the last few years, PPARs have emerged as key regulators of inflammatory and immune responses. However, the mechanistic basis of the anti-inflammatory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) remains poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that these effects result from inhibition of signal-dependent transcription factors that mediate inflammatory programs of gene activation. Several mechanisms underlying negative regulation of gene expression by PPARs have been described. Recent studies, using siRNA, microarray analysis and macrophage-specific knockout mice, have highlighted PPARs molecular transrepression mechanism in macrophages. Identification of their mechanism of action should help promote the understanding of the physiologic roles that PPARs play in immunity and contribute to the development of new therapeutic agents.