In this review, we examine the current status of stroke epidemiology, prevention, and management strategies in mainland China. The main findings suggested that total age-adjusted incidence of first-ever stroke in China is not very different from that in developed countries. Stroke incidence, mortality, and prevalence varied widely among different regions within China, with a noticeable north-south gradient. The proportion of intracerebral haemorrhage was high and reached 55% in one city. Hypertension is the most important risk factor for stroke. The mass approach combined with a high-risk approach for stroke prevention showed encouraging effects, and various unconventional local therapeutic traditions are commonly used to treat stroke in China. Several national guidelines on stroke prevention and treatment have been developed. Because of methodological limitations in the epidemiology studies, data are unreliable in terms of making any firm conclusions. Up-to-date, well-designed, and well-done epidemiological studies and therapeutic trials in China are urgently needed.