Manipulation of host Kruppel-like factor (KLF) function by exotoxins from diverse bacterial pathogens

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007 May;5(5):337-41. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro1641.


Diverse pathogenic bacteria have developed similar mechanisms to subvert host cell responses. In this Progress article, we focus on bacterial virulence factors with different enzymatic activities that can increase the expression of the Kruppel-like factor (KLF) family of mammalian transcriptional regulators through their ability to modify the activity of a common host-cell target - the Rho protein family. By using a common virulence strategy, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens exploit the KLF regulatory cascade to modulate nuclear factor kappaB activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, actin cytoskeletal dynamics and phagocytosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Exotoxins / pharmacology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / pathogenicity*
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / pathogenicity*
  • Humans
  • Kruppel-Like Factor 6
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Virulence Factors / pharmacology*


  • Exotoxins
  • KLF2 protein, human
  • KLF6 protein, human
  • Kruppel-Like Factor 6
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Virulence Factors