Macaque monkey retrosplenial cortex: III. Cortical efferents

J Comp Neurol. 2007 Jun 10;502(5):810-33. doi: 10.1002/cne.21346.


We have investigated the cortical efferent projections of the macaque monkey retrosplenial and posterior cingulate cortices by using (3)H-amino acids as anterograde tracers. All the injections produced extensive local connections to other portions of this region. There were also a number of extrinsic efferent cortical connections, many of which have not hitherto been reported. Major projections from the retrosplenial cortex were directed to the frontal lobe, with heaviest terminations in areas 46, 9, 10, and 11. There were also very substantial projections to the entorhinal cortex, presubiculum, and parasubiculum of the hippocampal formation, as well as to areas TH and TF of the parahippocampal cortex. Some injections led to labeling of area V4, the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus, and area 7a of the parietal cortex. Projections from the posterior cingulate cortex innervated all these same regions, although the density of termination was different from the retrosplenial projections. The posterior cingulate cortex gave rise to additional projections to parietal area DP and to the cortex along the convexity of the superior temporal gyrus. The ventral portion of the posterior cingulate cortex (area 23v) gave rise to much denser efferent projections to the hippocampal formation than the dorsal portions (areas 23e and i). These connections are discussed in relation to the clinical syndromes of retrosplenial amnesia and topographic disorientation in humans commonly caused by lesions in the caudoventral portions of the retrosplenial and posterior cingulate cortices.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Efferent Pathways / cytology*
  • Efferent Pathways / physiology
  • Hippocampus / cytology*
  • Hippocampus / physiology
  • Macaca fascicularis / anatomy & histology*
  • Macaca fascicularis / physiology
  • Male
  • Models, Anatomic
  • Parahippocampal Gyrus / cytology*
  • Tritium / metabolism


  • Amino Acids
  • Tritium