The effects of short-term oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on exercise performance and on blood pressure and renal function were assessed. Thirty-five healthy, active duty, U.S. Army volunteers (20 men and 15 women; age, 22-36 years) at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, supplemented their diet for 7 days with 20 g/day of either Cr or taurine (as placebo). There was no significant difference in 2-minute push-up counts between the Cr and taurine groups from before to after supplementation (p = 0.437; power = 0.98). The Cr group demonstrated a significant increase in serum creatinine levels (p < 0.001), compared with the taurine group, and this increase could be misinterpreted as impairment of renal function. No adverse changes in blood pressure, body composition, weight, or serum Cr phosphokinase levels were observed. We conclude that short-term Cr supplementation appears to be safe but does not enhance push-up performance.