We recently showed that the activity of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum is controlled by a novel regulatory mechanism that involves a 15-kDa protein called OdhI and serine/threonine protein kinase G (PknG). In its unphosphorylated state, OdhI binds to the E1 subunit (OdhA) of ODHC and, thereby, inhibits its activity. Inhibition is relieved by phosphorylation of OdhI at threonine-14 by PknG under conditions requiring high ODHC activity. In this work, evidence is provided that the dephosphorylation of phosphorylated OdhI is catalyzed by a phospho-Ser/Thr protein phosphatase encoded by the gene cg0062, designated ppp. As a decreased ODHC activity is important for glutamate synthesis, we investigated the role of OdhI and PknG for glutamate production under biotin limitation and after addition of Tween-40, penicillin, or ethambutol. A DeltaodhI mutant formed only 1-13% of the glutamate synthesized by the wild type. Thus, OdhI is essential for efficient glutamate production. The effect of a pknG deletion on glutamate synthesis was dependent on the induction conditions. Under strong biotin limitation and in the presence of ethambutol, the DeltapknG mutant showed significantly increased glutamate production, offering a new way to improve production strains.