The right ventricular outflow tract: the road to septal pacing

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2007 Apr;30(4):482-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2007.00697.x.


Background: Pacing from the right ventricular apex is associated with long-term adverse effects on left ventricular function. This has fuelled interest in alternative pacing sites, especially the septal aspect of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). However, it is a common perception that septal RVOT pacing is difficult to achieve.

Methods and results: In this article, we will review the anatomy of the RVOT and discuss the importance of standard radiographic views and the 12-lead electrocardiogram in aiding lead placement. We will also describe a method utilizing a novel stylet shape, whereby a conventional active-fixation, stylet-driven lead can be easily and reliably deployed onto the RVOT septum.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial / methods*
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial / standards
  • Electrocardiography
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Heart Ventricles / anatomy & histology
  • Heart Ventricles / diagnostic imaging*
  • Heart Ventricles / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Reproducibility of Results