Although psychological distress and cognitive dysfunction are well documented in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), they are poorly understood in children with the disease. Psychosocial difficulty experienced by children and adolescents with MS involves factors common to all chronic illnesses in children, as well as MS-specific factors. The psychosocial manifestations of the disease may affect the patient's self-image, role functioning, mood, and cognition to adversely affect schooling, interpersonal relationships, and treatment compliance. Furthermore, the impact of having a family member with MS may affect overall family functioning. Assessment and interventions for psychosocial and cognitive problems in pediatric MS should be multidisciplinary in nature and address the child's functioning at home, school, and among peers, as well as the effect on the family.