Single administration of low dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) was previously reported to enhance the antitumor efficacy of immunotherapies. To investigate the possible mechanisms for this effect, we examined whether a single administration of low dose CTX could augment the immunogenicity of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines. Fifty milligrams per kilogram body weight dose of CTX was administrated intraperitoneally to mice after B16 melanoma or C26 colon carcinoma tumor models were established, DC vaccine generated from mouse bone marrow and pulsed with B16 or C26 tumor cells lysates were vaccinated 4 days later. CTX treatment potentiated the antitumor effects of the DC vaccine, and increased the proportion of IFN-gamma secreting lymphocytes in spleens. Furthermore, a significantly reduced proportion of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells was detected by flow cytometry in spleen lymphocytes from tumor-bearing mice treated with CTX. Thus, a single administration of low dose CTX could augment antitumor immune responses of DC vaccine by reducing the proportion of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells in tumor-bearing mice. Our results suggested a possible mechanism of CTX-induced immunopotentiation and provided a strategy of immunotherapy combining a low dose CTX with DC vaccine.