Objective: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) use in infants >1500 g, but <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure will reduce the incidence of death and/or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
Study design: Infants born at <34 weeks gestation with a birth weight >1500 g with respiratory failure were randomly assigned to receive placebo or iNO.
Results: Twenty-nine infants were randomized. There were no differences in baseline characteristics, but the status at randomization showed a statistically significant difference in the use of high-frequency ventilation (P=0.03). After adjustment for oxygenation index entry strata, there was no difference in death and/or BPD (adjusted relative risk (RR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 1.48; P=0.50), death (adjusted RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.47 to 3.41; P=0.65) or BPD (adjusted RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.47 to 3.41; P=0.21).
Conclusions: Although sample size limits our ability to make definitive conclusions, this small pilot trial of iNO use in premature infants >1500 g and <34 weeks with severe respiratory failure suggests that iNO does not affect the rate of BPD and/or death.