Ab initio study of hydrated potassium halides KX(H2O)1-6 (X=F,Cl,Br,I)

J Chem Phys. 2007 Apr 14;126(14):144311. doi: 10.1063/1.2715565.


The ionic dissociation of salts was examined with a theoretical study of KX (X=F,Cl,Br,I) hydrated by up to six water molecules KX(H2O)n (n=1-6). Calculations were done using the density functional theory and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbational theory. To provide more conclusive results, single point energy calculations using the coupled cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations were performed on the MP2 optimized geometries. The dissociation feature of the salts was examined in terms of K-X bond lengths and K-X stretch frequencies. In general, the successive incorporation of water molecules to the cluster lengthens the K-X distance, and consequently the corresponding frequency decreases. Near 0 K, the KX salt ion pairs can be partly separated by more than five water molecules. The pentahydrated KX salt is partly dissociated, though these partly dissociated structures are almost isoenergetic to the undissociated ones for KFKCl. For the hexahydrated complexes, KF is undissociated, KClKBr is partly dissociated, and KI is dissociated (though this dissociated structure is nearly isoenergetic to a partly dissociated one). On the other hand, at room temperature, the penta- and hexahydrated undissociated structures which have less hydrogen bonds are likely to be more stable than the partly dissociated ones because of the entropy effect. Therefore, the dissociation at room temperature could take place for higher clusters than the hexahydrated ones.