Gene flow from GM glyphosate-tolerant to conventional soybeans under field conditions in Japan

Environ Biosafety Res. Jul-Sep 2006;5(3):169-73. doi: 10.1051/ebr:2007003. Epub 2007 Mar 28.

Abstract

Natural out-crossing rates were evaluated for conventional soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivated adjacent to genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybeans under field conditions during a four-year period in Japan. A total of 107 846 progeny of 2772 plants harvested from conventional varieties were screened for glyphosate herbicide tolerance. The highest out-crossing rates, 0.19% in 2001 and 0.16% in 2002, were observed in adjacent rows 0.7 m from the pollen source. The highest rate in 2004 was 0.052%, which was observed at 2.1 m. No out-crossing was observed in the rows 10.5 m from the pollen source over the four-year period. The farthest distances between receptor and pollen source at which out-crossing was observed were 7 m in 2001, 2.8 m in 2002, and 3.5 m in 2004. The greatest airborne pollen density during the flowering period, determined by Durham pollen samplers located between the rows of each variety, was 0.368 grains.cm(-2).day(-1), with the average value at 0.18 grains.cm(-2).day(-1), indicating that the possibility of out-crossing by wind is minimal. Thrips species and predatory Hemiptera visited the soybean flowers more frequently during the four-year period than any other common pollinators, such as bees.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Appetitive Behavior / physiology
  • Crops, Agricultural*
  • Gene Flow / genetics*
  • Glycine / analogs & derivatives
  • Herbicide Resistance / genetics*
  • Insecta / physiology
  • Japan
  • Plants, Genetically Modified*
  • Pollination / genetics*
  • Reproduction / genetics
  • Soybeans / genetics*

Substances

  • glyphosate
  • Glycine