Gene flow from GM glyphosate-tolerant to conventional soybeans under field conditions in Japan

Environ Biosafety Res. Jul-Sep 2006;5(3):169-73. doi: 10.1051/ebr:2007003. Epub 2007 Mar 28.


Natural out-crossing rates were evaluated for conventional soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivated adjacent to genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybeans under field conditions during a four-year period in Japan. A total of 107 846 progeny of 2772 plants harvested from conventional varieties were screened for glyphosate herbicide tolerance. The highest out-crossing rates, 0.19% in 2001 and 0.16% in 2002, were observed in adjacent rows 0.7 m from the pollen source. The highest rate in 2004 was 0.052%, which was observed at 2.1 m. No out-crossing was observed in the rows 10.5 m from the pollen source over the four-year period. The farthest distances between receptor and pollen source at which out-crossing was observed were 7 m in 2001, 2.8 m in 2002, and 3.5 m in 2004. The greatest airborne pollen density during the flowering period, determined by Durham pollen samplers located between the rows of each variety, was 0.368, with the average value at 0.18, indicating that the possibility of out-crossing by wind is minimal. Thrips species and predatory Hemiptera visited the soybean flowers more frequently during the four-year period than any other common pollinators, such as bees.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Appetitive Behavior / physiology
  • Crops, Agricultural*
  • Gene Flow / genetics*
  • Glycine / analogs & derivatives
  • Herbicide Resistance / genetics*
  • Insecta / physiology
  • Japan
  • Plants, Genetically Modified*
  • Pollination / genetics*
  • Reproduction / genetics
  • Soybeans / genetics*


  • glyphosate
  • Glycine