Pollen wall development in flowering plants

New Phytol. 2007;174(3):483-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02060.x.


The outer pollen wall, or exine, is more structurally complex than any other plant cell wall, comprising several distinct layers, each with its own organizational pattern. Since elucidation of the basic events of pollen wall ontogeny using electron microscopy in the 1970s, knowledge of their developmental genetics has increased enormously. However, self-assembly processes that are not under direct genetic control also play an important role in pollen wall patterning. This review integrates ultrastructural and developmental findings with recent models for self-assembly in an attempt to understand the origins of the morphological complexity and diversity that underpin the science of palynology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Wall / physiology
  • Cell Wall / ultrastructure*
  • Magnoliopsida / cytology*
  • Magnoliopsida / genetics
  • Magnoliopsida / growth & development
  • Meiosis
  • Pollen / growth & development
  • Pollen / ultrastructure*