Cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, which make up a large gene superfamily, are known to play an important role in drug metabolism. The CYP1 family, one of the gene families of the CYP superfamily, has three subfamilies of genes whose sequences have been deposited in the GenBank/EMBL thus far: CYP1A, CYP1B, and CYP1C. Mammals as well as fish confront numerous foreign chemicals in the environment that may accumulate to toxic levels unless they are metabolized and eliminated by processes largely mediated by CYP enzymes. A new complementary DNA of the CYP1C subfamily encoding CYP1C2 was isolated from the carp liver after a single intraperitoneal injection of beta-napthoflavone (BNF). The full-length cDNA obtained contained a 5' noncoding region of 198 bp, an open reading frame of 1575 bp coding for 524 amino acids and a stop codon, and a 3' noncoding region of 531 bp. The predicted molecular weight of the protein was approximately 59.3 kDa. The amino acid sequence deduced from the carp CYP1C2 sequence showed a similarity of 76.6% with that deduced from our previously reported carp CYP1C1. It exhibited similarities of 77.3, 73.7, and 76.4% with those deduced from scup CYP1C2, scup CYP1C1, and Japanese eel CYP1C1 sequences, respectively. Carp CYP1C2 cDNA showed similarities with reported CYP1Bs of teleosts and mammals, namely, 47.6, 45.3, 45.7, 44.0, and 44.6% for carp, plaice, human, rat, and mouse CYP1B1s, respectively, while it exhibited a similarity of 49.0% with carp CYP1B2. The carp CYP1C2 sequence was aligned with the CYP1 sequences and has been deposited in the GenBank/EMBL data bank with the accession number AY437777. The phylogenetic tree constructed using fish and mammalian CYP1 sequences suggested a closer relationship of CYP1C with CYP1B than with CYP1A. The tree showed possibile existence of CYP1C subfamily genes in mammalian species. Northern blot analysis of the liver, intestines, kidneys, and gills revealed a distinct induced expression only in the kidneys, with no detectable constitutive expression in the other organs studied.