An objective assessment of botulinum toxin A effect on superficial skin texture

Ann Plast Surg. 2007 May;58(5):469-73. doi: 10.1097/


The botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) role on elimination of hyperkinetic wrinkles is consolidated, although relying on subjective methods of assessment. A prospective open-label study was performed on 10 patients to objectively analyze superficial skin texture changes caused by BTX-A in the glabellar area. Skin areas were reproduced by silicon replica technique at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months after treatment. Takahashi's parameters (roughness, anisotropy, microsulcus number, and width) were obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. SEM images showed skin texture changes, and software analysis gave parameters for statistical analysis, allowing an objective evaluation. Statistically significant parameter modifications were evidenced. BTX-A effectiveness in wrinkle treatment was confirmed, and no differences in skin texture parameters from baseline to toxin action end were noted.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A / pharmacology
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuromuscular Agents / pharmacology
  • Neuromuscular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Replica Techniques
  • Silicones
  • Skin / drug effects*
  • Skin / ultrastructure
  • Skin Aging / drug effects*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric


  • Neuromuscular Agents
  • Silicones
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A