A previously healthy 44-year-old man died three weeks after the simultaneous onset of encephalitis and retinitis. Fundus changes were bilateral and included papillitis, rapidly progressive central retinal vein obstruction, and massive exudative retinal detachment. A 16-fold rise in herpesvirus hominis antibodies occured between the 10th and 20th days of illness. At autopsy, the brain showed changes characteristic of herpetic encephalitis, and cultures of the brain yielded Herpesvirus hominis type I. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical of those produced by Herpesvirus were found by light microscopy in brain, optic nerves, retina, and choroid. Herpesvirus particles were found by electron microscopy in brain, optic nerve, and retina.