We have previously shown in our laboratory that cerebrospinal fluid from ALS patients (ALS-CSF) contains putative toxic factor(s). In the present study we determined the effect of ALS-CSF on the integrity of the Golgi apparatus of spinal motor neurons in the neonatal rats. CSF was injected intrathecally into three-day-old rat pups and subsequently the ultrastructural changes in the motor neurons were studied after 48 h, 1, 2 and 3 weeks. We observed that ALS-CSF causes fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus in a considerable number of motor neurons in the spinal cord. This was further confirmed when motor neurons were stained with an antibody against a medial Golgi protein (MG160). Thus, we suggest that the putative toxin(s) present in ALS-CSF may cause impairment in the protein processing leading to motor neuron death.