Eight children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and eight matched, uninjured control children underwent fMRI during an N-back task to test effects of TBI on working memory performance and brain activation. Two patterns in the TBI group were observed. Patients whose criterion performance was reached at lower memory loads than control children demonstrated less extensive frontal and extrafrontal brain activation than controls. Patients who performed the same, highest (3-back) memory load as controls demonstrated more frontal and extrafrontal activation than controls. Our findings of performance and brain activation changes in children after TBI await longitudinal investigation.