Introduction: Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRLS) is characterised by the sudden and usually transient onset of headaches, visual disorders, decreased awareness and convulsions associated with cerebral oedema in the posterior areas of the brain. Different reports have associated it with numerous processes and possibly with haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We describe a new case of PRLS within the context of HUS.
Case report: We describe the case of a 4-year-old child with HUS who developed arterial hypertension that did not respond well to treatment and kidney failure that required renal replacement therapy. During the course of the disease the patient presented several transient episodes of headache, a lowered level of consciousness and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple lesions in the white matter and the cortex that were hyperintense in T2 and hypointense in T1 situated in the bilateral occipital and right frontotemporoparietal regions. The patient made a full clinical recovery in a few days, although an magnetic resonance imaging scan performed at six weeks after the last episode showed partial remission of the lesions and a small cerebral infarction.
Conclusions: The pathogenesis of PRLS is still not fully understood. Its multifactorial origin suggests that several different mechanisms may be involved. In the case reported here, it is possible that the arterial hypertension, retention of fluids and even the sessions of dialysis played a role in its development.