There are few biomarkers that have been developed which have proven clinical utility for the detection and prognosis of cancer. Cancer is diagnosed today, in large part, by examining cells under the microscope and determining the shape and texture of the nucleus. The molecular underpinnings of this hallmark of cancer are the components of the nuclear matrix. Utilizing proteomics focused on this subset of proteins, biomarkers have been identified that are specific for cancer types including prostate, colon and bladder cancer. These cancer biomarkers now serve as the basis of assays which can specifically identify individuals with cancer by sampling their blood and/or urine. In addition, these may serve as potential therapeutic targeting or imaging approaches.