MR spectroscopy (MRS) sequences allow noninvasive exploration of brain metabolism during a MRI examination. Their day-to-day use in a clinical setting has recently been improved by simple programming of sequences and automated quantification of metabolites. However, a few simple rules should be observed in the choice of sequences and the location of the voxels so as to obtain an informative, high-quality examination. The research applications of MR spectroscopy, where use of this examination seeks to better understand the pathophysiology of the disease, must be distinguished from its clinical indications, where MRS provides information that can be used directly in patient management. The most significant of the clinical uses are imaging intracranial tumors (positive and differential diagnosis, extension, treatment follow-up), diffuse brain injury, encephalopathies (especially hepatic and HIV-related), and the diagnosis of metabolic disorders.