In the search for potential new drug targets for the treatment of diabetes, sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs), in particular SGLT2, have been the subject of particular attention. SGLT2 plays an important role in glucose reabsorption in the kidney, and SGLT2 inhibitors enhance renal glucose excretion and consequently lower plasma glucose levels. Thus, SGLT2 inhibitors can control energy balance in a negative direction. The principle behind SGLT2 inhibition involves the improvement of diabetic conditions without increasing body weight or the risk of hypoglycemia. A number of pharmaceutical companies are evaluating SGLT2 inhibitors, and studies have confirmed the therapeutic potency and safety of these drugs for the potential treatment of diabetes.